KEY CONCEPTS

TERMBASES

Extensive Love to Benefit All People

Bo (博) means extensive, wide; ai (爱) is synonymous with hui (惠) which means benefit to all. Ancient Chinese believed that ensuring the people a life of peace and security is hui. Love in turn is an expression of ren (仁) , or benevolence, which is based on close human relationships. The term applies primarily to a concept of governance of “love for and benefit to the people,” as demonstrated through its systems, laws, policies, and measures which should be as inclusive as possible. The term also refers to a kind of social morality and personal integrity based on harmonious engagement with others, goodwill, and mutual help.

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Wise rulers in the past discovered that education could change people for the better so they advocated extensive love, and consequently no people abandoned their parents. They taught people about morality and rules of conduct, and consequently they all acted accordingly…

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2

The principles of a ruler should be to govern according to natural laws without unduly interfering, to benefit as many people as possible, and to select the talented and upright for office…

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3

To have a broad love for humans is benevolence, to implement benevolence and behave in the correct way is to have righteousness, and to act with benevolence and righteousness is to attain the proper way. To achieve a consummate personal state without outside intervention is to attain virtue.

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