Literally, this term means the rules and orderliness of heaven and earth. According to Zuo’s Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals, Zichan (?-522 BC) of the State of Zheng proposed the concept to explain the essence and justification of rites. Zichan believed that the movements of heaven and earth followed eternal rules that created a consist…

This view on human nature was first proposed by Mencius. As Mencius(372?-289 BC) saw it, human nature is the inherent moral character which a human being naturally possesses and which distinguishes him from an animal. In this sense, human nature underpins such virtues as benevolence, righteousness, sound social norms, and good judgment. However, …

Poems of this style first emerged during the reign of Emperor Wu of Qi of the Southern Dynasties. That period, lasting from 483 to 493, assumed the regal title of Yongming, hence the name of this poetic style. Yongming poems featured metrical structure and parallelism. They were also known as the “new poetry,” as opposed to the “old poetry” of…

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