The term means to have love for the people, and cherish all things in the world. Here wu (物) includes plants and animals, while ai (爱) implies using them in a measured and appropriate way. This was first proposed by Mencius who differentiated natural emotions as: a love for close family, a broad compassion for other people, and a sense of cherishi…

The Spring and Autumn Annals is one of the Confucian classics, believed to have been compiled by Confucius based on the chronicles of the State of Lu. The book covers a period of 242 years from the first year of the reign of Duke Yin of Lu (722 BC) to the 14th year of the reign of Duke Ai (481 BC). The book was China’s first chronological history, …

In ancient days, this term had two meanings. One, it referred to correctness or orthodoxy, specifically in the interpretation of ancient classics. The term was often used as part of a book title, such as Correct Interpretation of the Five Classics. Two, it referred to principles of justice that were universally accepted and righteous. In modern time…

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