To be able to stop war is a true craft of war. This famous military view was first raised by King Zhuang of Chu(?-591 BC) in the Spring and Autumn Period, on the basis of the structure of the Chinese character wu (武). Wu is composed of zhi (止), which means to stop; and ge (戈), which means dagger-axe or weapons and is used here in the metaphori…

First proposed in the book Xunzi, this term refers to fundamental principles which apply to different things. It means that by differentiating things according to their categories and by understanding these categories, a sage could acquire universal principles which apply to all things. By following universal principles, one can ensure that differen…

Entertainers, known as Youren (优人), or Changyou (倡优), Paiyou (俳优), or Youling (优伶), were folk artists who performed story-telling, dancing, acrobatics, and comedy. After the Song and Yuan dynasties, they also performed in operas. Initially formed as small groups of entertainers sponsored by court aristocrats for entertainment, they evolved …

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