The notion of the people’s will being the foundation, or the “roots,” of government comes from a dialogue between a king of the Shang Dynasty and Houfu (in a text found on bamboo slips of the Warring States Period). Houfu said to the king, “The people’s will is like the roots of a tree: they support the leaves.” By that he meant that public su…

Humansand Nature respond to each other. This theory was put forward by Dong Zhongshu (179-104BC) ,who had inherited his predecessors’ thinking and believed that things ofsimilar nature could respond to each other. According to him, humans are aduplication of Nature, therefore they respond to each other. Changes of Naturewill affect human beings and…

This is animportant proposition made by the School of Names.GongsunLongzi(320?-250BC) discussed this thesis in great detail. In his view, “horse” isa name of the physical body of a horse, whereas “white” is the name for whitecolor. “White horse” refers both to “horse” and “white” and therefore is notthe same thing as that which is referre…

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