This expression means to ensure a secure livelihood for the people, a requirement for governance proposed by Mencius (372?-289 BC), who believed that if the common people did not have a steady income and could not maintain their survival, they would deviate from moral righteousness in pursuit of survival. Rulers, therefore, must create and provide …

Fish cannot survive in the water that is too clear. With no plankton in water, fish have nothing to feed on and are bound to die. This is a natural phenomenon. Drawing inspiration on it, ancient Chinese believed that one should not set the bar too high for a person or something, criticize a person for failing to be perfect, or be too strict with oth…

This term refers to two things that are mutually opposite to but complementing each other and that they mutually transform between them. Everything is an antithesis to something else. Both antithetic sides are opposite to each other. Therefore there is mutual exclusion between them, such as you and wu, long and short, high and low, good and bad, and…

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