The moral characters of humans endowed or influenced by qi (气) stand in contrast with “characters endowed by Heaven” or “characters endowed by Heaven and Earth.” The term encompasses two meanings. First, it refers to the specific disposition of a person under the influence of qi, such as firmness and gentleness, patience and impatience, and wis…

This term refers to the emotional strength and the vitality of a literary work. It was first used during the Southern Dynasties, resonating with the social practice of making comment on people. The term was used to describe the emotional vigor and forcefulness of artistic works such as poetry, essays, calligraphy, and paintings. It is similar in mea…

All under heaven belongsto all the people in the world; a country belongs to all the people in thecountry. “All under heaven” can here be understood as the country or highestsovereign power of the country. The ancients regarded all under heaven as belongingneither to a single person nor to a single family but to all the people.Whoever acted accord…

More 》