This term means suffering injustice in life can spur one to create great works. It originated from the “Preface by the Grand Historian to Records of the Historian.” After Sima Qian, an official in the Western Han Dynasty, suffered the unjust punishment of castration, his indignation spurred him to write the great work, Records of the Historian. In…

Be discreet and watchful asif one is standing on the edge of a cliff or treading on thin ice, both beingprecarious situations in which people need to exercise maximum caution to staysafe. One should observe the same discreet and care when it comes to adherenceto ethics, rites and law as well as fulfilling one’s due responsibility. Any slackeningmay…

Ci (词 a form of poetry with long or short verses which can be set to music and sung) and qu (曲 a form of rhyming compositions which can be set to music and sung) are a combined appellation for two kinds of literary styles. In the Complete Library of the Four Branches of Literature, they are listed at the very end of the “Collections” section (Qu…

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