The term stands for perpetual change. According to The Book of Changes, while shengsheng (生生) here means continued growth and perpetual change, it can be understood at two levels. First, in regard to the existence of all things, it is the interaction of yin and yang that drives the process of the endless cycle of birth, rebirth, and change of heav…

Words cannot fully express the fundamental understanding of the world. According to The Book of Changes, words are inadequate for expressing what one means and that was why the hexagram images were made to convey the ideas of the sages. Xun Can, Wang Bi, and other metaphysicians of the Wei and Jin dynasties further elucidated this concept. Their und…

This term refers toself-examination of one’s own words, deeds, and inner thoughts. Introspectionis a way of moral cultivation put forward by Mencius. Mencius inherited theConfucian belief that one’s moral integrity and meritorious deeds aredetermined by his own ethical cultivation. If his words or deeds fail to gainendorsement or appreciation from…

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