This is a term used in The Book of Changes to explain the meaning of diagrams. It may be understood in two ways. First, when used in divination, it is a judgment predicting good fortune. Yuanheng (元亨) means a wide, smooth path or a grand sacrificial rite. Lizhen (利贞) refers to a favorable reading by a diviner and an auspicious prospect. Second, …

This refers to the way to judge the artistic quality of calligraphy.Wang Sengqian (426-485) of the Southern Dynasty and Zhang Huaiguan (datesunknown) of the Tang Dynasty held that the primary criterion for appreciatingcalligraphy is whether it features a spiritual liveliness; the concern about theway of how to use the brush and ink is secondary. Bot…

The term means that ingenuity and skill at their best look simple and clumsy. The greatest ingenuity should be something completely natural and that it has not been painstakingly worked on. The term comes from the book Laozi. Laozi the philosopher believed that everything should be in keeping with nature. He advocated non-action and was against any …

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