Wenqi (文气) is the personality an author demonstrates in his works, and is a fusion of his innate temperament and the vitality seen in his works. Originally, qi (气) referred to the basic element in the initial birth and formation of all things, as well as heaven and earth. In literary criticism, it refers to an author’s distinctive individuality …

To fight or not to fight is one’s own decision, not the enemy’s. Do not engage the enemy if victory is not guaranteed. This is a principle of military operations proposed by ancient Chinese. “Not to engage the enemy” does not mean passively avoiding confrontation, but means to avoid direct confrontation when the situation favors the enemy. One s…

Feeling attached to the native land and reluctant to move to another place. This was a widespread way of thinking and sentiment among the common people in a traditional agricultural society. In essence, it is because they depended on the land to make a living, since the land served as their basic resource for production and livelihood. Also, they we…

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