Outside the Four Seas refers to the territory outside China, foreign lands, or remote areas. The ancient Chinese thought that China’s territory was surrounded by the Four Seas (the East, West, North, and South seas). Therefore, places outside China were outside the Four Seas. It reflected the ancient Chinese belief that the seas were the natural bo…

This poetic style pursued rhetorical beauty and symmetrical structure. In theearly years of the Northern Song Dynasty, poets such as Yang Yi, Liu Yun, and Qian Weiyan gathered in the emperor's private library to compile Important Mirrors for Governance, a book that records the activities of monarchs and their ministers in all previous dynasties. Dur…

This term means to find out the truth of things, and act accordingly to succeed in what one does. Kaiwu (开物) means to reveal the truth of things and understand their intrinsic relations and rules. Chengwu (成务) means to use proper methods to do things successfully according to their intrinsic relations and rules. This was a perception and guide t…

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