While this literally means "lines employed inpainting," it is used to refer to the fundamental rules guiding the art ofpainting and, furthermore, to the universal laws of the formation anddevelopment of everything in the universe. This notion was first put forward bythe Qing-dynasty painter Shi Tao, though his ideas were controversial amon…

The term means what is formless or has no formal substance yet. It generally indicates the basis of physical things. The term “what is above form” comes from The Book of Changes and is used as the opposite of “what is under form.” “Form” indicates physical shape. “What is above form” refers to the state before a physical shape emerges, namel…

This is the most importanttraditional festival for the Chinese nation and overseas Chinese. In the narrowsense, it is the first day of the Lunar New Year. In a broader sense, it refersto the festival that occurs between the 23rd day of the last lunar month (theday of Offerings to the Kitchen God) and the 15th day of the first lunar month(the Lantern…

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